The Reflection Quadrant. A way to guide reflection

Mart Ottenheim

Abstract

In a changing world were the Internet and computers play an important role in de lives of many students, a teacher should change his ways of teaching by using these new technologies. Those are not the only changes a teacher should adapt to. Culture changes, relations between men and women change, economics and jobs change and most important, the way children learn change. The teacher must be able to constantly follow these technological and social changes and adapt his/her teaching accordingly. This can be done passively, slowly changing with the flow but it is much more effective to react to the changes in an active manner by reflection on once own actions (Schön, 1983). Several ways of reflection can be categorised (Pinsky et al., 1998): anticipatory reflection, reflection-­‐in-­‐action and reflection-­‐on-­‐action (Shulman, 1987; Irby, 1992; Schön, 1983; Eraut, 1994). Anticipatory reflection is done prior to an action. Reflecting-­‐ in-­‐action is done during teaching, seeing ones own actions and acting in response to it. Reflection-­‐on-­‐action is done after the action; looking back on the experience and trying to learn from it. The growing importance of reflection in education is part of a changing paradigm from knowledge based action to experienced based action (Boud, 1999).

Keywords

Reflection

Full Text:

PDF

References

Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page.

Boud, D. (1999). Avoiding the traps: Seeking good practice in the use of self assessment and reflection in professional courses. Social Work Education, Vol. 18, 121–132.

Calderhead, J. & Gates, P. (2004) Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development. Taylor & Francis.

Dornan, T., Carroll, C., & Parboosingh, J. (2002). An electronic learning portfolio for reflective continuing professional development. Medical Education, Vol. 36, 767–769.

Eraut, M. (1994). Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. Falmer Press, London.

Gustafsson, C., & Fagerberg, I. (2004). Reflection, the way to professional development? Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 13, 217–280

Irby, D.M. (1992). How Attending Physicians Make Instructional Decisions when Conducting Teaching Rounds. Academic Medicine. Vol. 67: 630–637.

Korthagen, F.A.J. (2004). In search of the essence of a good teacher. Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 20(1), 77-­‐ 97.

Korthagen, F.A.J & A. Vasalos (2002) Niveaus in reflectie: naar maatwerk in begeleiding VELON Tijdschrift voor Lerarenopleiders Vol. 23(1).

Mann, K.; Gordon, J. & MacLeod, A. (2009) Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Advances in Health Science Education. Vol. 14, 595–621

Moon, J. (1999). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning. London: Routledge. Pearson, D., & Heywood, P. (2004). Portfolio use in general practice vocational training:

A survey of GP registrars. Medical Education. Vol. 38, 87–95.

Pinsky, L.E.; Monson, D. & Irby, D.M. (1998) How Excellent Teachers Are Made: Reflecting on Success to Improve Teaching. Advances in Health Sciences Education Vol. 3, 207–215.

Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-­‐Bass. Schulman, L.P. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.

Harvard Educational Review Vol. 57, 1–22.

Smyth, J. (1989) Developing and Sustaining Critical Reflection in Teacher Education

Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 40(2), 2-­‐9

Teekman, B. (2000). Exploring reflective thinking in nursing practice. Journal of

Advanced Nursing. Vol. 31, 1125–1135.

Verhagen, P. (2011). Kwaliteit met beleid. Coutinho uitgeverij. 333 pp.



Categories: 2014, Articles - JETEN, Reflection/Thinking

Tags:

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: