Challenges facing the implementation of children’s rights in primary schools in Ethiopia

Elisabeth Almaz B. Eriksen, Demelash Kassaye Debalkie

Abstract

The primary objective of this study is to examine the challenges facing the implementation of children’s rights to protection from physical punishment when schools administer discipline.The study, which was conducted in primary schools in a city in Southern Ethiopia, employed qualitative research involving interviews, observations and open-ended questionnaires. The findings indicate that children are exposed to various forms of physical punishments in schools. The challenges are mainly posed by traditional authoritarian child-rearing practices and a lack of knowledge about children’s rights among teachers and parent teacher representatives, despite senior leadership appearing familiar with the rhetoric regarding physical punishment.

Keywords

Children’s rights, Physical Punishment, Ethiopia

Full Text:

PDF

References

African Child Policy Forum (2016). The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2016. Getting It Right: Bridging the gap between policy and practice. An Overview. Addis Ababa: The African Child Policy forum. http://www.africanchild.report/ (Date: 6. February 2018).

African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) (2014). The African Report on Violence against Children,

Addis Ababa: African Child Policy Forum. http://africanchildforum.org/files/AfricanReprotVAC.pdf Date: 22.2.2018

Awujo, G. (2006). Relationship between Child Rearing Pattern and Secondary School Student’s Study Habits. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 8(2) 169–182. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.529.1025&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Abebe, T. & Tefera, T. (2014). Earning rights. Discourses on Children’s Rights and Proper Childhood in Ethiopia. In Imoh, A. T. & N. Ansell, A. (Eds.), Children’s Lives in an Era of Children’s Rights: The Progress of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Africa, 53–71. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge.

Afua, T-D.I. (2013). Children’s perceptions of physical punishment in Ghana and the implications for children’s rights. Childhood, 20(4), 472–486.

Ansell, N. (2005) Rights, participation, activism and power. In Nicola Ansell (Ed.), Children, Youth and Development, 225–254. New York: Routledge.

Bae, B (2006). Perspektiver på barns medvirkning i barnehage. In: Temahefte om barns medvirkning. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartmentet.

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4 (1, Part 2).

Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior. Child Development, 37 (4) 887–907.

Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. & Cowan, P. (2002). Ordinary physical punishment: Is it harmful? Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 580–589.

Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111–1119.

Committee on the Rights of the Child (2006). General Comment no 8. Forty-second session Geneva, 15 May–2 June 2006.

Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No. 1/1995.

Education for All (2017). Accountability in Education: Meeting our Commitments. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002593/259338e.pdf

Education for All (2016). Education for People and Planet. Creating sustainable futures. https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2016/education-people-and-planet-creating-sustainable-futures-all

Education for All (EFA) (2015). Global Monitoring Report 2000-2015. Achievements and Challenges. UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002322/232205e.pdf

Geertz C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Herbert J. Rubin & Rubin, I. (1995). Qualitative Interviewing: The art of hearing data. Sage Publication.

Hodgkin, R. & Newell, P. (2002). Implementation Handbook of UNCRC. 3rd Edition. UNICEF: http://poundpuplegacy.org/files/Handbook_UNCRC.pdf. (Date 2.9.2018.)

Hundeide, K. (1988). Lydighet og selvstendighet. Kulturell mangfoldighet i

oppdragelses- og sosialiseringsformål, i BARN nr. 4/1988.

Lemessa, A. & Kjørholt, A.T. (2013). Children’s Parliament: A Case Study in Konso. In T. Abebe & T. Kjørholt (Eds.), Childhood and local knowledge in Ethiopia: Livelihoods, rights and integrational relationships, 45–70. Trondheim: Akademika Publishing.

Lenta, P. (2012). Corporal Punishment of Children. Social Theory and Practice, 38(4), 689–716.

Mwaura, P.A.M., Sylva, K. & Malmberg, L. E. (2011). Effects of a preschool intervention on cognitive development among East-African preschool children: A flexibly time-coded growth model. Early Childhoos Research Quarterly, 26(1), 124–133.

Nordahl, T. (2013). Eleven som aktør. på elevens læring og handlinger i skolen. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.

Olsen, S.T. & Hagen, A. (2015). How can exposure to practice in a foreign context

enhance the professional development of teacher students? Case study from South Africa. Journal of the European Teacher Education Network, 10, 154–164.

Portela, O.M.J. & Pells, K. (2015). Corporal Punishment in Schools: Longitudinal Evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Viet Nam (Innocenti Discussion Paper No. 2015-02), UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

Pupavac, V. (2011). Punishing Childhoods: Contradictions in Children’s Rights and Global Governance. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 5(3), 285–309.

Qvortrup (2009). Are children human beings or human becomings? A critical assessment of outcome thinking. Rivista internazionale di scienze sociali, 117 (3/4), 631–653.

Robinson, C.C., Mandleco, Olsen, B., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive Parenting Practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77 (3), 819–830.

Robinson, C.C., Hart, C.H., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S.F., Russel, A., Aloa, V., Jin, S., Nelson, D.A., & Bazarskava, N. (1996). Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections. Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development (14th, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, August 12-16, 1996).

Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. SAGE Publication, Thousand Oaks California.

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 8 (2006). The Right of the Child to Protection from Corporal Punishment and Other Cruel or Degrading Forms of Punishment (Arts. 19; 28, Para. 2; and 37, inter alia), 2 March 2007, CRC/C/GC/8, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/460bc7772.html [accessed 9 September 2018].

UNESCO (2018). Gross enrolment ratio.http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary-term/gross-enrolment-ratio [accessed 9.9.2018].

UNESCO (No date). Country Information. https://en.unesco.org/countries/ethiopia [accessed [accessed 22.2.2018].

USAID (No date) Country Profile. https://idea.usaid.gov/cd/ethiopia?comparisonGroup=region [accessed: 22.2.2018].



Categories: 2019, Articles - JETEN, Urban Education

Tags: , ,

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: