Derya Sahin Asi, Damla Guzeldere Aydin, Sakire Ocak Karabay
Teachers usually interact with their students in various ways including instruction. If there is a conflict occurs between child and teacher, teachers may have the tendency to use several strategies to regulate this position. Teachers who may not know or not have adequate skills how to handle problems or problem behaviors of children within classroom may lead children to experience various forms of emotional maltreatment. In this study, we focused on emotional maltreatment reported by teachers when they encounter problem behaviors of their students or conflicts within the classroom. It was a qualitative study with 91 female preschool teachers from ten schools. We prepared four semi structured questions to ask about typical problem situations they might encounter within their classes. Teachers were supposed to answer questions based on their experiences and/or opinions concerning how they would handle those kinds of situations. They mostly repeated deprivation which means removing materials/resources that make child feeling comfortable, threatening to remove materials/resources from the physical environment, not being sensitive enough to the needs of child, embarrassing child in front of others, ignoring child who has problem by leaving on his/her own. Results were discussed based on teachers’ role within interactions in a classroom context to affect their emotions, thinking styles, well-being and involvement in classroom activities.
Teacher-child interactions, classroom management, emotional maltreatment, preschoolers.
Analoui, F. (1995). Teachers as managers: an exploration into teaching styles. International Journal of Educational Management, 9 (5), 16-19.
Archambault, I., Vandenbossche-Makombo, J. & Fraser, S.L. (2017). Students’ Oppositional Behaviors and Engagement in School: The Differential Role of the Student-Teacher Relationship Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1702-1712.
Downer, J.T. & Pianta, R.C. (2006). Academic and cognitive functioning in first grade: Associations with earlier home and child care predictors and with concurrent home and classroom experiences. School Psychology Review. 35(1), 11–30.
Hamre, B. K. & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early Teacher–Child Relationships and the Trajectory of Children’s School Outcomes through Eighth Grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00301
Hyman, I., & Snook, P.A. (2000). Dangerous schools and what you can do about them. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(7), 488-501.
Krugman, R.D., & Krugman M.K. (1984). Emotional abuse in the classroom: The pediatrian’s role in diagnosis and treatment. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 138, 284-286.
Lippard, C., La Paro, K.M., Rouse, H.L., & Crosby,
D.A. (2017). A Closer Look at Teacher–Child Relationships and Classroom Emotional Context in Preschool. Child Youth Care Forum. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-017-9414-1
Maldonado-Carreño, C. and Votruba-Drzal, E. (2011). Teacher–Child Relationships and the Development of Academic and Behavioral Skills During Elementary School: A Within- and Between-Child Analysis. Child Development, 82, 601–616.
Mazer, J. P., McKenna-Buchanan, T. P., Quinlan, M. M., & Titsworth, S. (2014). The dark side of emotion in the classroom: Emotional processes as mediators of teacher communication behaviors and student negative emotions. Communication Education, 63(3), 149-168.
McEachern, A.G., Aluede, O., & Kenny, M.C. (2008). Emotional Abuse in the Classroom: Implications and Interventions for Counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 3-10.
McGrath, K.F., & Van Bergen, P. (2017). Elementary teachers’ emotional and relational expressions when speaking about disruptive and well behaved students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 487-497.
Mortensen, J.A. & Barnett, M.A. (2015). Teacher–Child Interactions in Infant/Toddler Child Care and Socioemotional Development. Early Education and Development, 26(2), 209-229.
Murray-Harvey, R. (2010). Relationship influences on students’ academic achievement, psychological health and well-being at school. Educational and Child Psychology, 27(1), 104.
Pianta, R. C. and Steinberg, M. (1992), Teacher-child relationships and the process of adjusting to school. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 61–80. doi:10.1002/cd.23219925706.
Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Putman, S.M. (2012) Investigating Teacher Efficacy: Comparing Preservice and Inservice Teachers with Different Levels of Experience, Action in Teacher Education, 34(1), 26-40.
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of educational research, 81(4), 493-529.
Rosemary E. Sutton and Karl F. Wheatley Teachers’ Emotions and Teaching: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 15, No. 4,
Sava, F. A. (2002). Causes and effects of teacher conflict-inducing attitudes towards pupils: a path analysis model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 1007–1021.
Shumba, A. (2002). The nature, extent and effect of emotional abuse on primary schools pupils in Zimbabwe. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 783-791.
Shure, M.B., & Spivack, G. (1979). Interpersonal cognitive problem-solving and primary prevention: Programming for preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2, 89–94.
Sutton, R. E. (2004). Emotion regulation goals and strategies of teachers. Social Psychology of Education, 7, 379–398.
Sutton , R.E., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Knight, C.C. (2009). Teachers’ Emotion Regulation and Classroom Management. Theory Into Practice, 48 (2), 130-137.
Uitto, M., Jokikokko, K., & Estola, E. (2015). Virtual special issue on teachers and emotions in teaching and teacher education (TATE) in 1985-2014. Teaching & Teacher Education, 50, 124-135.
Webster-Stratton, C. & Reid, M.J. (2003).Treating conduct problems and strengthening social and emotional competence in young children: The Dina Dinosaur treatment program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,11, 130–143.
Zins, J.E., Bloodworth, M.R., Weissberg, R.P., Walberg, H.J. (2007). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation,17 (2/3), 191–210.